Concept and signs of trade enterprises

Terms and determinations as follows:

The trade enterprise is the property complex used by the organization for purchase and sale of goods and rendering services of trade.

The property complex of trade enterprise includes the parcels of land, buildings, constructions, the equipment, stock, goods, debts, the rights, a trade name, trademarks and service marks.

Concept and signs of trade enterprises

Trade enterprise, entering the consumer market where in competitive struggle the sales of goods are performed, shall follow certain rules, basic of which says: the better opportunities and wishes of buyers will be considered, the more it is possible to sell goods and to accelerate their turnover.

The main objective of trade enterprises — to provide a possibility of purchase of any goods in case of the corresponding quality of trade servicing. Having realized goods and having got the set profit, the trade enterprise achieves the objectives.

On the economic content the spent capital which is attracted as current assets shall be compensated by sales of goods. In market conditions it is necessary to be realistic about dynamics and adequacy of return of the cash assets put in commodity appliances by retail trade enterprise.

The trade enterprise is understood as the independent accounting entity having legal status legal or physical person, created for the purpose of profit earning and performing the activities for the risk for purchase, storage, sales of goods directed to a market requirements satisfaction now.

The trade enterprise shall have a trade name, trademarks, service marks, to have legal capacity and capacity to act which arise at the time of the state registration. On restriction sheathe legal capacities of trade enterprise the state licensing of separate types of activity is directed.

Managing bodies of trade enterprise can be individual (the director, the chairman of the board, the CEO) and joint (general meeting, board).

Trade enterprises have the right to create separate divisions in the form of representations or branches which aren’t legal entities and act on the basis of the provisions approved by it.

Functions of trade enterprises

Trade enterprises perform the following functions: forecasting, planning, organization of trade engineering procedure, analysis and control. Features of accomplishment of functions of trade enterprise are connected with the following directions:

  • search of the goods including which are possessing special characteristics, most conforming to requirements of the consumer market;
  • search of the directions in enhancement of the existing forms of servicing and implementation of new;
  • search of the ideas for the purpose of enhancement of trade engineering procedure.

Trade enterprises can be classified by many signs: on patterns of ownership, on the activities purposes, on nature of the rights of founders to property of trade enterprise, on forms of business, on tasks and functions.

Trade enterprises are divided by tasks and functions on wholesale, retail, catering establishments, merging of these organizations and the mixed associations — wholesale and retail trade enterprises, production trade enterprises, the commerce and industry entities (groups).

Public catering is a network of structural formations of all patterns of ownership performing production, implementation and the organization of consumption of products within one entity.

For years of reorganization of catering establishment underwent to considerable changes, and their share in the total amount of a goods turnover decreased from 8,6% (1991) almost up to 5% (2006).

Now the big share in public catering is constituted by the organizations of social public catering — student’s, school, working cafeterias. Many of them are structural divisions of production enterprises and educational institutions and are transferred to their economic board.

Other catering establishments, especially in technical training college, colleges, schools, united in specialized municipal unitary enterprises — plants of food. Therefore the share of the state-owned and municipal property in public catering is higher, than in retail trade («20%) though in recent years more and more entities of restaurant business in individual property appear.

Merge of the restaurant and hotel industry, development of medium and large enterprises, development of the entities of network of fast food become an objective reality («The Russian bistro», «Pizza huts», McDonald’s, etc.).