Identity of the Head
The identity of the head, his experience, business and characterologic features play the leading role in management of the organizations. But requirements and quality of the identity of the head can’t be considered separately from a sort of its activities. So, for example, some qualities which are found in the analysis of activities of production managers are absent in characteristics of heads of research teams and vice versa. Besides, mutual compliance of the identity of the head and his activities are characterized by certain dynamics. The question of manifestation and forming of qualities of the identity of the head and his activities shall be considered in a direct connection with that, as activities of the head too significantly change as a result of acquisition by it of new qualities and change of existing. However told doesn’t exclude an opportunity and need to determine those requirements to which there shall correspond the head of any managerial rank in various social organizations in the most general view.
Main properties of the Head:
1. Social orientation of activities
The head as the official shall know well legislative, regulations which regulate activities of the social organizations. He shall understand well the main tendencies in development of modern policy, economy, the right and other spheres of life of the state.
2. The high competence of a certain professional activity according to a profile of the leading collective (policy, science, production, law-enforcement system, etc.) as the head not in general manages people, and manages their activities for the solution of professional tasks. However owing to the work connected with the organization of people, the head shall own the system of knowledge and in a number of adjacent areas: modern economy, right, philosophy, psychology, etc. Such heads are able to communicate with people, connecting a word and case. They often set the activities purposes, are able to prove them, to force people to believe in need of their achievement.
3. Managerial ability
One of the main qualities of the head — ability to organize joint operation of people. However it isn’t so simple to combine solutions of organizational and technical tasks with people. It is easier for many heads to make something, than to achieve execution of it from others. It is the easiest, but the most unpromising way as not to make everything, and over time the head finds out that his subordinates weaned from independence, can’t or don’t want to make decisions independently any more. And meanwhile now one of the central tasks which heads should solve in the collectives is to create conditions for manifestation of activity, an initiative, creativity of people, development of their active motivation.
In a number of researches it is shown that managerials ability include the following psychological properties of the personality:
- to reflect a capability with sufficient completeness psychology of the managed group during the solution of joint tasks;
- practical orientation of mind — mastering knowledge and abilities in the field of practical psychology, readiness to apply them in the course of the solution of organizing tasks;
- psychological step — availability of sense of proportion in relations with people;
- availability of vigor — a capability to load with the energy the organized people;
- insistence — a capability to impose to people adequate requirements depending on features of a situation;
- criticality — a capability to find and express deviations, significant for these activities, from the conditions dictated by an objective;
- tendency to organizing activities — the need for it.
4. High moral qualities: justice and objectivity in assessment of employees, humanity, keenness, tactfulness, honesty. Not only in respect of the business competence, but also in the moral qualities the head shall be a sample for subordinates. It would be wrong to limit communication with only subordinate office questions. It is necessary to be interested in their personal problems, family, living conditions, health, opinion of employees on various questions, to attentively listen to them even if their opinion seems wrong.
Nature of the head is shown in a leadership style because it serves also as a behavior standard for subordinates. Therefore it is so important to consider properties of nature in case of appointment of the person to an executive position. The worker of work collectives consider that it is difficult and unpleasant to work with the head if he isn’t balanced, rough, unfair. It considerably reduces a labor productivity.
5. Emotional and strong-willed traits of character: commitment, adherence to principles, persistence, determination, discipline, enthusiasm, a capability to show these qualities to the subordinates and to lead them. Strong-willed qualities of the person long since were considered as his basic skills to manage. Socrates, for example, considered that the main advantage of the head — to be able to rule over people, and the main enemies of the head are gluttony, laziness, passion to wine, weakness to women. It is possible to refer the self-criticism necessary for awareness of the weaknesses, and the self-checking necessary for their suppression to strong-willed qualities. The important role in structure of these qualities is occupied by sense of responsibility which the head shall feel constantly, for a moral and physical condition of the subordinates, for results of activities of the collective directed by it.
6. Mental abilities: observation, analyticity of thinking, capability to forecasting of situations and results of activities, efficiency and logicality of memory, stability and distribution of attention. The head shall fill up and update constantly the knowledge and be able creatively, quickly use them in often changing, sometimes the extreme situations characteristic of his not standard activities. So, A.V. Suvorov considered that knowledge in memory of the commander shall be systematized, are kind of spread out on boxes so that they could be found and used quickly in a certain situation. Napoleon highly appreciated mind, but considered that people the having a lot of mind and not enough nature are least of all suitable for a military profession because for this purpose it is necessary to have more determination and to reflect less.
There is an opinion that the people having high creative intelligence prefer to work in a privacy. People of average capabilities are more inclined to work in collective, to a management of people. In difficult modern conditions at the person applying for a management it shall be high and characterologic and intellectual properties are harmoniously developed.
7. Ability to maintain the authority.
The authority is based on:
- the official status (position and the power) occupied by the head;
- recognition of its superiority and the right to make crucial decisions in the conditions of joint activities.
The head — the leader as at his behavior there are both properties holds this authority.
8. Image of the head — an important component of his authority. The concept of image reflects modern requirements to appearance of the head who not only communicates with subordinates, but also performs function of representation of the group directed by it in the face of other social organizations. Therefore appearance of the head, the standard of speech, manners — all this elements of his image. In modern conditions there are image makers who create shape of the head, creating this shape according to expectations of public.
9. Good health. Activities of the modern head are characterized by extremely high nervous and physical voltage. Become the reasons of occupational diseases of heads the increased nervous excitability, a sleep disorder, cardiovascular frustration. Therefore it is considered that whatever strong was the person, his health on a supervisory position will be enough no more than for 8 years.
But many heads treat the health scornfully, aiming to set collective an example of office eagerness, disregarding that their health is a factor which considerably determines efficiency of activities of the collectives directed by them. Except that the head shall lead a healthy lifestyle, it shall undergo systematic physical examinations. Health of the highly competent, experienced head is not only his personal property, but also social value for collective, the organizations and the states.